The Cocoa Value Chain / The Cocoa Supply Chain
Small Holder Farmer
- Nursery - Seedings
· Plantation and Maintenance
· Post Harvest
- Confectionary Industry
- Food Industry
- Industrial, Artisanal, Pharma & Tobacco consumers
- Small holder farms are family operated – 1 to 3 hectares.
- Seedlings require 80-90% shade. Medium sized trees only require 50% shade.
- Coconut trees provide permanent shade cover. Banana trees provide temporary shade cover.
- Cacao trees are best interplanted alongside coconut trees and banana trees.
- Seedlings take 18-24 months to flower. It takes about 6 months for flowers to reach pod maturity.
- Primary pollinator is the mitges – little moths.
- Pollination times are 5am – 7am and 7pm – 8pm.
- Smoking on the farm can affect the mitges and hinder pollination.
- Pods should be harvested at 75-80% ripeness. Pods that are too ripe are likely to have beans that are germinated.
- 18-25 pods = 1 kilogram of wet beans
- 3 kg of wet beans = 1 kg of dry beans
- 50 kg needed to ferment
- 1 metric ton = 1,000 kilograms
- 1 cacao tree produces 2 kg of dry beans per year
- Best soil conditions is loam soil – porous
- Best temperature is 18 degrees Celsius
- Best pH is 4.5 – 6.5
- 1 hectare = 1,100 cacao trees open with 3 meters apart (good only if 18 degrees Celsius and no summer – rainy season year round. otherwise, needs shade cover)
- 1 hectare = 750 cacao trees interplanted with other crops (coconut & banana)
- 1 hectare of 750 cacao trees will produce (2 kg/yr) 1,500 kg of dry beans per year
- 1 hectare = 50,000 pesos in expenses (25,000 pesos for seedlings, 25,000 pesos for labor)
- Labor can include fertilizing, clearing, holing, staking, weeding, etc.
- CocoaPhil membership is 1,000 pesos per year.
- Farmers also pay land tax and business license annually.